Chapter 4 results and discussion

Chapter 4 results and discussion

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These were, however, not resolvable by PCS measurements.

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WRITING CHAPTER 4: THE RESULTS OF YOUR RESEARCH STUDY

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For a dried liposomal dispersion peaks are indeed seen Fig.

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This finding shows that examination of the emulsions by centrifugation has to be carried out with great care, and is liable rwsults produce liposomal structures which were not present in the native emulsions.

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Pelleting was, however, also observed before marked separation of oil had occurred. As no data is available in the literature on the thermal behaviour of mixtures of asymmetrically substituted triacylglycerols, no characterisation of the DSC thermograms will be given here.

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Negative staining of liposomal dispersions can, however, easily result in artifacts, since small liposomes can be disrupted to larger MLV structures owing to the manipulation of the sample [Miyamoto and Stoeckenius, ].

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Cryo-TEM yields the exact projection diameters of the spheres. This was attributed to the interaction of the surfactant with the lecithin, inhibiting the formation of the lamellar vesicles.

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However, by reflectometric measurement of solid cetylpalmitate, its refractive index was determined to 1.

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As with the lecithin-stabilised emulsions, the separated aqueous phase was slightly opaque in appearance and possessed a PCS z-average diameter of 60 nm. The results show that all emulsions consisted of oil droplets in the submicron range together with small unilamellar liposomes SUVs expressing an excess of lecithin.

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This is also the case for the model emulsions as well as for commercial emulsions.

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Here, either a multivesicular, or more likely, a large vesicle with multiple fractures at its interface is seen. The results in Fig.

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Small liposomal material may therefore erroneously appear to be in multilamellar state in the emulsions.

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Hollow liposomes of size predictable from pure liposome dispersions are seen in the emulsions, together with darker oil droplets Figs. Our consultants can provide the organization necessary to provide readers with a coherent flow of information.

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Similarly Mayhew et al.

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Changes in peaks on addition of increasing amounts of SLNs or liposomes are clearly detectable in Fig.

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This may explain why the NMR spectra of autoclaved emulsions show decreased isotropic signals Fig. Theoretically, emulsion droplets and liposomes would be expected to be separable by their different densities 0.

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Autoclaved emulsions were also frequently found to contain liposomes adhering to the surface of the emulsion droplets Figs. The inside of liposomes would, however, still remain detectable as non-shifted isotropic peaks.

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If free liposomes were present, they should be easily detectable within the emulsion sample after approx. The values varied from 1.

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This three-dimensional motional averaging is found also in lyso-PC micelles, which were therefore used as a reference for symmetric, isotropic peaks Fig.

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Address each hypothesis in turn, presenting a description of the analysis that was computed to address each hypothesis and the results of that analysis.

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To clarify whether the interactions of liposomes and emulsion droplets could have an influence on the autoclaving stability of the emulsions as had been suggested by Groves et al. Since the oil content is the same in both systems, increasing the degree of dispersity attenuates the enthalpy flux stemming from the chapter 4 results and discussion phase.

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Thermograms of lecithin-stabilised SLN dispersions similarly show only freezing and melting transitions of the dispersed cetylpalmitate. The first liposome fraction in Fig.

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This finding can be attributed to the pH of the liposomal dispersion medium, which had not been adjusted to higher values before autoclaving, and thus again demonstrates the importance of controlling surface-charge by pH of the aqueous phase.

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The spectra of commercial emulsions show interesting differences. Apart from emulsifier and glycerol, the aqueous subnatant does therefore clearly contain a small proportion of triglyceride.

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Cryo-TEM and 31 P-NMR analysis are more suitable for this purpose, since NMR proved to be sensitive to the small liposome and oil droplet populations, which in these emulsions are frequently underestimated by number. This is also the case for the model emulsions as chapter 4 results and discussion as for commercial emulsions.

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A more effective dispersing at higher homogenisation pressure also yielded a reduction in excess liposomes.

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It could not, however, be clarified from these experiments whether cubic phases formed at elevated temperatures, as suggested by Groves and Herman [].

However, aggregation of liposomes and emulsion droplets is greatly promoted by the autoclaving process.

As this does not cause an increase in the isotropic signal, the larger interfacial coverage had evidently also reduced the liposomal emulsifier excess.

The DSC thermograms in Fig.

This is also the case for the model emulsions as well as for commercial emulsions. This was not observed in the non-autoclaved emulsions and appeared more frequently as the number of liposomes was increased, e. A cubic phase would also show 31 P-NMR spectra of isotropic motional averaging.

For this reason no additives were used here. It could, therefore, be concluded that the mere presence of liposomal material in excess cannot stabilise the emulsion droplets. Large coalesced oil droplets were observed, as well as spontaneously emerging lamellar myelin sheets, typical for free lecithin Fig. The lecithin headgroup modes P-O 2 cannot, however, be used to detect thermal transitions. In a qualitative study, the results often include many quotes from participants who were interviewed.

The peaks reported by Diederichs [] were therefore most likely from the oil phase rather than the lecithin. This might allow examination of thermal effects within the emulsions.

The dissertation advisor usually has an opinion about the level of detail needed in this chapter.

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