Cardiovascular case study questions

Cardiovascular case study questions

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Home cardiovascular case study questions

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Coronary artery bypass graft CABG a surgical procedure used to create new routes around obstructions in coronary arteries and restore adequate blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Lymphocyte leukocyte white blood cells that plays important roles in the immune system. Oxidation a chemical reaction that removes electrons from an atom or molecule.

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Histone protein that binds to DNA and packages it into compact structures to form nucleosomes. Acidic having a pH of less than 7.

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Nucleus a membrane-bound cellular organellewhich contains DNA organized into chromosomes. Hepatocellular carcinoma the most common type of primary liver cancer.

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Ischemia a state of insufficient blood flow to a tissue.

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Supplement a nutrient or phytochemical supplied in addition to that which is obtained in the questiohs. In the retina, images created by light are converted to nerve impulseswhich are transmitted to the brain cardiovascular case study questions the optic nerve.

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Angina pectoris pain generally experienced in the chest, but sometimes radiating to the arms or jaw, due to a lack of oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

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Oxidative stress a condition, in which the effects of pro-oxidants e.

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Antioxidant any substance that prevents or reduces damage caused by reactive oxygen species ROS or reactive nitrogen species RNS.

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Ataxia a lack of coordination or unsteadiness usually related to a disturbance in the cerebellum, a part of the brain that regulates coordination and equilibrium.

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Hyperostosis excessive growth of bone tissue.

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In mild iodine deficiency, this adaptive response may cardiovascular case study questions enough to provide the body with sufficient thyroid hormone. Hyperthyroidism an excess of thyroid hormone which may result from an overactive thyroid gland or nodule, or from taking too much thyroid hormone.

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Tertile one-third of a sample or population.

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Tissues that are well-visualized using MRI include the brain and spinal cord, abdomen, and joints. Dietary cholesterol is obtained from animal sources, but cholesterol is also synthesized by the liver.

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Diverticulosis a condition characterized by the formation of small pouches diverticula in the colon.

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Methylation a biochemical reaction resulting in cardiovasculzr addition of a methyl group -CH 3 to another molecule. It can be used to assess the health of the valves and chambers of the heart, as well as to measure cardiac output.

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These sickle-shaped cells are easily trapped in capillaries and damaged, resulting in severe anemia. Proteolysis the breakdown of proteins by protease enzymes.

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Actinic lentigines hyperpigmented patches that occur in sun-exposed skin; also known as liver cardiovascular case study questions or age spots. Biotransformation enzymes phase I and phase II enzymes involved in the metabolism and elimination of a variety of exogenous drugs, toxins and carcinogens and endogenous compounds steroid hormones.

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Lumen the channel within a tube such as a blood vessel or the intestine. Awareness of cardiovascular risk factors remains less than ideal.

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The most common form is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and can be performed at home without a machine.

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Short bowel syndrome a malabsorption syndrome resulting from the surgical removal of an extensive portion of the small intestine. Macronutrient nutrients required in relatively large amounts; macronutrients include carbohydratesproteinsand lipids.

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Nitric oxide a gaseous signaling molecule synthesized from the amino acid arginine by enzymes called nitric oxide synthases.

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Hepatocyte a parenchymal cell of the liver. A physiologic dose of a nutrient is not generally greater than that which could be achieved through a conscientious diet, as opposed to the use of supplements.

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Symptoms may include edema swellingshortness of breath, weakness and exercise intolerance.

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Antimicrobial capable of killing or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria.

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Antioxidant any substance that prevents or reduces damage caused by reactive oxygen species ROS or reactive nitrogen species RNS. Glycogen a large polymer repeating units of glucose molecules, used to store energy in cells, especially muscle and liver cells. Oxidant reactive oxygen species. Benign prostatic hyperplasia the term used to describe a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate.

At the end of keratinization, the cell is wider and flatter and attached to its neighboring cells by a variety of protein and lipid attachments. Case-control study a study in which exposures of people who have been diagnosed with a disease cases are compared to those of people without the disease controls. Psoriasis a chronic skin condition often resulting in a red, scaly rash located over the surfaces of the elbows, knees, scalp, and around or in the ears, navel, genitals, or buttocks.

Melanocyte a pigment-containing cell of the epidermis. Dental caries cavities or holes in the outer two layers of a tooth—the enamel and the dentin. Executive functions include planning, organizing, strategizing, remembering details, and managing time and space. Cell cycle the orderly sequence of stages that a cell passes through between one cell division mitosis and the next. Replete in nutrition, having fulfilled nutrient requirements. Lysosomal enzymes are separated from the rest of the cell by a lysosomal membrane and function optimally at an acidic pH.

Cirrhosis has a number of different causes, including chronic alcohol use and viral hepatitis B and C. Hereditary spherocytosis a hereditary form of anemia characterized by abnormally shaped red blood cells which are spherical and abnormally fragile. A test for glycated hemoglobin measures the percentage of hemoglobin that is glucose bound. Steroid hormone receptor a protein within a cell which binds to a specific steroid hormone. Recombinant erythropoietin is used to treat anemia in patients with end stage renal failure.

Neurotoxic toxic or damaging to nervous tissue brain and peripheral nerves. RNA ribonucleic acid; a single-stranded nucleic acid composed of many nucleotides. Metabolic syndrome is also called metabolic syndrome X, syndrome X, and insulin resistance syndrome.

Participants are simply observed over time. If the prostate becomes enlarged it may exert pressure on the urethra and cause urinary symptoms.

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